Booting Procedure with different stages In Linux in Hindi

Linux ka booting procedure kuch aise stages mein hota hai:

Booting Procedure with different stages In Linux in Hindi

  1. BIOS/UEFI: Booting process BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) ya UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) se shuru hota hai. Yeh firmware interfaces hardware ko initialize karte hain, ek Power-On Self-Test (POST) karte hain, aur boot device ko (aam taur par hard drive ya SSD) boot order ke settings ke hisab se locate karte hain.

  2. Bootloader (GRUB): Jab BIOS/UEFI boot device ko pehchan leta hai, tab bootloader ko load kiya jata hai, jo aksar Linux systems mein GRUB (Grand Unified Bootloader) hota hai. Bootloader ka mukhya kaam Linux kernel ko memory mein load karna hota hai. Ye interface dikhata hai jahan se aap different operating systems ko choose kar sakte hain, agar multiple operating systems installed hain.

  3. Linux Kernel: Bootloader Linux kernel ko memory mein load karta hai. Linux kernel ek pramukh hissa hota hai jo hardware ke sath communicate karta hai aur operating system ko initialize karta hai.

  4. Init System: Linux kernel initialize hone ke baad, ek init system (jaise ki systemd) start hota hai. Init system processes ko manage karta hai aur user space programs ko initialize karta hai.

  5. User Space: User space mein, essential system processes aur services start hote hain jaise ki networking, file systems, daemons, etc. Is stage mein aap user interface bhi dekh sakte hain, jaise ki login screen.

  6. User Login: Jab sab kuch sahi tarike se initialize ho jata hai, to aap user login kar sakte hain aur graphical desktop environment ya command-line interface par pahunch sakte hain.

Yeh stages ek dusre ke saath collaborate karke Linux operating system ko boot karne mein madadgar hoti hain.

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