Data models Relational Network & Hierarchical schema and subschema in hindi

Data models Relational Network & Hierarchical schema and subschema in hindi:-

Data Models, yaani Data Prateekchhaya, ek database mein data ko organize aur structure karne ka conceptual representation hota hai. Isse database ki logic structure define hoti hai aur data ko store, manage, aur retrieve karne ke liye ek framework pradan kiya jata hai.

Teen pramukh data models hote hain: Relational (Sambandhik), Network (Jaalik), aur Hierarchical (Shrenivaali) models. Chaliye inhe ek-ek karke samjhte hain:

DBMS के ये Topics के बारे में जानें :-

  1. Relational Model: Relational Model, yaani Sambandhik Model, vartamaan samay mein sabse adhik istemal hone wala data model hai. Ismein data ko tables mein organize kiya jata hai, jahaan har table mein rows (records) aur columns (attributes) hote hain. Tables ke beech ke sambandh (relationships) ko keys (primary aur foreign keys) se sthapit kiya jata hai. Relational Model data integrity ko enforce karta hai, SQL (Structured Query Language) ka upyog karke complex queries ko support karta hai, aur data retrieve aur manipulation mein flexibility pradan karta hai. Isse structured data ko storage, retrieval, aur management mein sahayata milti hai.

  2. Network Model: Network Model, yaani Jaalik Model, data ko records aur sambandho ke ek sangrah ke roop mein pratishthit karta hai. Ismein graph jaisa ek structure ka upyog kiya jata hai, jahaan records ek dusre se sets aur pointers ke madhyam se jude hote hain. Network Model complex sambandho ko sambhav karta hai, jaise ek-se-bahut sare aur bahut-se-bahut sare, pointers ke madhyam se records ko jodkar. Har record ke multiple owners ho sakte hain aur records navigational paths dwara pointers ke madhyam se access kiye ja sakte hain. Network Model pahle ke dino mein database systems mein prachalit tha, lekin aaj kal Relational Model ne iska upyog adhiktar kiya hai.

  3. Hierarchical Model: Hierarchical Model, yaani Shrenivaali Model, data ko tree jaisi ek structure mein organize karta hai, jaisa ki file system ki structure hoti hai. Ismein data ko parent-child relationships ke sangrah ke roop mein pratishthit kiya jata hai, jahaan har record ke ek parent aur zero ya adhik children hote hain. Records ko shrenivaali roop mein jodkar ek top-down structure banaya jata hai. Is model mein data retrieve ek pahle se tay kiye gaye shrenivaali path (navigational path) ke anusaar hota hai. Hierarchical Model pahle ke database systems mein aam taur par istemal kiya jata tha, visheshkar mainframe environments mein.

Subschema: Database systems mein, Subschema ek database schema ka ek subset hota hai, jo kisi vishesh user ya application ke liye data ka ek specific view define karta hai. Isse alag-alag users ya applications ko database ka alag-alag view ya access level prapt hota hai. Subschema data independence pradan karta hai, jisse users customized tarike se database schema ka hissa se kaam kar sakte hain. Har subschema mein

Advantages of Data models Relational Network & Hierarchical schema and subschema in hindi:-

Database management mein, data models jaise ki Relational, Network, Hierarchical, aur Subschema, data ko organize aur structure karne mein mahatvapurna bhumika nibhate hain. Chaliye inke labh aasaan bhasha mein samjhte hain:

Relational Model:

  • Advantages:
    • Simplicity: Relational model seedha hai, isko samajhna aur istemal karna aasan hai.

    • Flexiblity: Yeh vy complex queries aur data relationships ko bina complex navigation kiye samarthan karta hai, jaise ki hierarchical ya network models mein.

    • Normalization: Yeh normalization ko support karta hai, jo punaravritti ko kam karta hai aur data integrity ko sudharta hai.

    • Data Independence: Yeh dono prakar ki data independence, arthath physical aur logical data independence pradan karta hai, jo database structure mein parivartan ko prabhavit kiye bina applications mein parivartan ki anumati deta hai.

Network Model:

  • Advantages:
    • Complex relationships: Yeh hierarchical model se behtar tareeke se jatil sambandhon ka samarthan karta hai, jo ki bahut-si-manyata-manyata sambandhon ko anumati deta hai.

    • Performance: Yeh kuch vishesh prakar ke queries ke liye hierarchical model ke tulna mein adhik kushal ho sakta hai.

    • Data Integrity: Yeh data integrity ko pointers aur sets ke istemal se bana kar rakhta hai, jo sanrachna ke antargat consistency ko surakshit rakhta hai.

Hierarchical Model:

  • Advantages:
    • Speed: Hierarchical databases kuch vishesh prakar ke queries ke liye jaldi ho sakte hain, vishesh roop se jab predefined paths ke saath data tak pahuncha jaata hai.

    • Data Integrity: Network model ki tarah, yeh data integrity ko parent-child sambandhon ke madhyam se bana kar rakhta hai.

    • Ease of Understanding: Hierarchical model pratibodhshil aur samajhne mein aasan hai, vishesh roop se sadharan data structures ke liye.

Subschema:

  • Advantages:
    • Data Security: Yeh data ke alag-alag darshanon ko anumati deta hai, jo vyakti ko kis data ko kaunse vyakti tak pahunchane ki adhikarikta hai, ko dhvaniyan parivartan karta hai.

    • Simplifies Access: Prayogakartaon ko sirf un hisson tak ka data prapt karne ki anumati deta hai jo unke liye mahatvapurna hai, data prapti aur prabandhan ko saral banata hai.

    • Data Independence: Yeh data independence ka star pradan karta hai, jisse schema mein parivartan karne par sabhi prayogakartaon ya applications par prabhav nahi padta.

Pratyek model ki apni shaktiyan aur kamzoriyan hoti hain, aur kaunsa prayog karna hai yeh vishesh pranaliyon ke aniyamitataon aur rakhne wale data ke prakar par nirbhar karta hai.

Disadvantages of Data models Relational Network & Hierarchical schema and subschema in hindi:-

Database management mein, data models jaise ki Relational, Network, Hierarchical, aur Subschema ke saath kuchh kathinaiyan bhi judi hoti hain. Chaliye inka bhi ek nazar dalte hain aasaan bhasha mein:

Relational Model:

  • Disadvantage:
    • Complexity: Kuch samay mein, kuch vishesh queries ko samajhna aur likhna relational model mein thoda kathin ho sakta hai, vishesh roop se jab bahut bade databases ke saath kaam kiya ja raha ho.

Network Model:

  • Disadvantage:
    • Complexity: Network model ka istemal karna hierarchical model se adhik complexity wala ho sakta hai, ismein data ke saath saath pointers ka bhi dhyan rakhna padta hai.

Hierarchical Model:

  • Disadvantage:
    • Flexibility: Hierarchical model ki flexibility kam hoti hai, kyun ki yeh predefined paths ke anusaar hi data ko organize karta hai, jise kuch samay mein kam upyoganiy bana sakta hai.

Subschema:

  • Disadvantage:
    • Complexity: Subschema ka prabandhan karne ke liye adhik pratibaddh hona pad sakta hai, khaaskar jab alag-alag darshanon ya adhikariyon ke liye anek subschema banane ki avashyakta hoti hai.

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