File attributes and permissions in linux in hindi

File attributes aur permissions, Linux aur UNIX-like operating systems mein files aur directories ke security aur access control ko manage karne ke liye important concepts hain. Inka samajhna mahatvapurn hai. Niche main aapko file attributes aur permissions ke bare mein acche se samjhata hoon:

File attributes and permissions in linux in hindi

File Attributes (File ki Sifatayein):
Linux mein har file ya directory ke sath kuch attributes hoti hain jo unke properties aur characteristics ko define karti hain. Kuch common file attributes hote hain:

  1. File Name (File Ka Naam): File ka naam uski pehchan hoti hai.
  2. File Type (File Ka Prakar): File ek regular file ho sakti hai (jaise text file ya binary file) ya phir directory, symbolic link, device file, socket file, etc. ho sakti hai.

  3. File Size (File Ka Size): File ka size bytes mein hota hai aur uski storage space ko represent karta hai.

  4. File Timestamps (File Ki Samay Rekha): Files ke 3 main timestamps hote hain: modification time (last modified), access time (last accessed), aur inode change time (metadata change). In timestamps mein file ke samay ko store kiya jata hai.

  5. File Ownership (File Ki Maalikana): Har file ka ek owner hota hai, jo use create kiya hota hai. Owner file ke permissions ko modify kar sakta hai.

  6. File Permissions (File Ki Permissions): File permissions determine karte hain ki kaun kaise file ko access kar sakta hai. Yeh read (r), write (w), aur execute (x) permissions mein hoti hain.

File Permissions (File Ki Permissions):
File permissions ka mukhya uddeshya determine karna hota hai ki kaun kaise ek file ya directory ko access kar sakta hai. File permissions three main categories mein aati hain:

  1. Owner Permissions (Maalik Ki Permissions): Owner, file ke creator hota hai, aur usko file permissions ko modify karne ki full authority hoti hai. Owner permissions usually me read, write, aur execute hote hain (rwx).

  2. Group Permissions (Samuh Ki Permissions): Group permissions define karte hain ki files ya directories ko unke group ke members kaise access kar sakte hain. Yeh group ke creator ya administrator ke control mein hoti hain. Group permissions bhi read, write, aur execute hote hain (rwx).

  3. Others Permissions (Dusre Logon Ki Permissions): Others permissions specify karte hain ki koi bhi aur user files ya directories ko kaise access kar sakta hai, jo owner ya group member nahi hai. Others permissions bhi read, write, aur execute hote hain (rwx).

Permissions ko represent karne ke liye typically three characters ka combination istemal hota hai:

  • r (Read): User file ya directory ko read kar sakta hai.

  • w (Write): User file ya directory mein changes kar sakta hai (jaise ki file mein likhna).

  • x (Execute): User file (executable file) ko run kar sakta hai.

Jab aap ls -l command ka istemal karte hain, toh aapko ek list dikhti hai jo files ya directories ke permissions, ownership, size, timestamps, aur aur information ko dikhata hai.

Yeh permissions aur attributes ka system Linux mein file security aur access control ko maintain karne mein madadgar hota hai. File permissions ko chmod aur chown commands se modify kiya ja sakta hai.

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