OO Analysis an introduction In OOAD In Hindi

Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA) ki Prastuti:

Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA) ek mahatvapurna charan hai software vikas jeevan chakr mein jo samasya kshetra ko samajhne, prasangik vastuyen pehchane aur unke sanaghatan ko nirdharit karne par dhyan kendrit karta hai. OOA ek mahatvapurna kadam hai, ek software project ke design aur anuvad charan me badhne se pahle. Isme vastu jagat ko model karna, unke rishte ko pahchanna aur unke vyavaharon ko object-oriented programming ke siddhanton ka istemal karke paribhashit karna shamil hai.

OOA mein kuch mukhya concepts hote hain:

  1. Objects (Vastuen): Objects OOA ke nirmaan ke patthar hote hain. Ve vastu jagat ki vastuen, khayalon ya cheezen ko pratinidhit karte hain, jinke paas gun (data) aur vyavahar (methods) hote hain. Objects data aur data se sambandhit methods ko samaahit karte hain. Udyam management pranali mein, “Book,” “Customer,” aur “Transaction” vastuen ho sakti hain.
  2. Classes (Klase): Classes vastuen ko banane ke liye blueprint pradan karte hain. Ve woh gun aur vyavahar ko varnan karte hain, jo us klase ke objects mein honge. Ek klase us pattr hai jisse saman gun aur vyavahar wale instances (objects) banane mein madad milti hai. Udyam, “Book” klase mein aise gun ho sakte hain jaise title, author, aur aise methods jaise borrow() aur return().
  3. Attributes aur Methods (Gun aur Vyavahar): Attributes vastu se sambandhit gun ya data hote hain, jabki methods vastu ka kaam ya opereshan hote hain. Gun aur methods vastu ki visheshta aur vyavahar ko nirdharit karte hain. Udyam management pranali mein, “Customer” klase mein gun jaise naam aur sampark jankari ho sakte hain, sath hi methods jaise placeOrder() bhi ho sakte hain.
  4. Rishte (Relationships): Objects akela nahi hote; ve ek dusre ke saath sambandhit hote hain. OOA mein vastuen ke beech ke rishte ka pata lagana shaamil hai. Yeh rishte sambandh, sangrahan, samanyaikaran, aadi ho sakte hain, jo aapke pichhle sawalon mein ullekh kiye gaye the. Yeh rishte yeh darshane mein madad karte hain ki vastuen kis prakar se ek doosre se sahayog karte hain, prapt karni wali vyavastha ko achieve karne ke liye.
  5. Use Cases (Upayog-Prastutiyan): Use cases yeh darshate hain ki abhinetak (prayogakarta ya bhaari system) kaise system se sampark karte hain aur system usi sampark ka uttar kaise deta hai. Ve system ke karyashil avashyakataon ko pehchane aur vastuen, klase, aur unke vyavaharon ki rachna mein prerit karte hain.
  6. Analysis Diagrams (Vishleshan Diagrams): OOA aksar vishleshan diagrams jaise klase diagrams, sequence diagrams, aur use case diagrams ka istemal karke vastuen ke bhaugolik sambandh, vyavaharon aur sanrachana ka visual prastutikaran karta hai. Yeh diagrams sanchar aur gyan-bhandaar ke beech mein samajhne aur bodh kriyatmakta mein madad karte hain.

OOA ka mukhya lakshya samasya kshetra ka ek saaf aur sarvavyapi model banana hota hai. Yeh model ek vikalp ka adhar hota hai software pranali ko anuvad aur anuvad charan mein. Yeh asli vyavsayik ya pranali kshetra ke saath saath milta hai. OOA abhikalan, samaveshan aur moudhrikaran par jor deti hai, jisse vikasak ko adhik sambalne yogy, sudridh aur pranaliy vyaavsayik pranaliyan banaane mein madad milti hai, jo vyavsayik ya pranali kshetra se samantar hoti hain.

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